Friday, September 10, 2010

A feeling of melancholy fills up my chest as I open my blog to post my final assignment. It has been almost 4 months since ClinChem02b was born. I didn’t expect to find myself sitting hours and hours in front of my laptop thinking of ways to make my posts as appealing as possible. It’s a tough job, but I enjoyed it.

Although I am not sure if there are people who actually read my blog, I still feel very swollen with pride for myself for having the nerve to display my work online. Being a self conscious person, I take comments about myself seriously, and so I try to avoid such especially bad ones. And what better way to contradict that act than posting your work for the world to see and critic, huh? But surprisingly, I haven’t received anything discouraging just yet. So let me take this opportunity to thank you guys for being so kind to me. HeHe..

Ok. Before tears start soaking up my keyboard I better start writing something that is actually related to my topic. But what is my final topic?? Drum roll please. For my final blog, I was assigned to talk about the things which may be recommended for a toxicology laboratory. Unfortunately, I failed to find a good reference for this subject. But the blogging must go on! And so I am just going to try my best to write something that I hope may give you even just a little extra knowledge about the “laboratorio de toxicologia”.

Recommendations, proposals, suggestions, advices… they are all intending to meet one target---an improvement. I feel kind of out of the position to actually be recommending about something that I personally have little idea of but let me have a few seconds to internalize my role as a recommendatory personnel (gosh, does that term actually exist?)…….3…2…1… FIGHT!


1. Before setting up a laboratory, one of the first things you would want to take a look at into are the people you are going to hire. First on the workforce and probably the most important is the “Laboratory Director”. Like in any organization an effective director must have a good background. He should have an appropriate education to be able to manage a lab and assume responsibilities.

2. They say that experiences are the best teachers so enough training is one important characteristic of a good laboratory director.


1. One of the most important things a laboratory should have in order to ensure the quality of the results it delivers is the standardization of every procedure it is capable of doing. A laboratory is composed of different laboratory technicians. Because of this, different techniques are inevitable. Therefore standardization of every procedure is important. It is called Standard Operating Procedure (SOP).

Here are examples of procedures which I think needs standardization in order to ensure the accuracy of the results when released:
• Specimen Collection and Labeling
• Specimen Handling
• Recommended Amounts of Specimen


1. Perhaps one of the basic requirements for the operation of a toxicology laboratory is a secured handling of specimen from the time it is collected to the time it is released with the results. It is crucial to have an effective chain-of-custody because failure to have so may be grounds for legal suites against the laboratory. Negligence is the term.

2. Unauthorized persons should never be allowed to get inside the laboratory itself. Use of bar code systems instead of patients’ name are also an effective way of ensuring privacy and security.


1. Since we are dealing with toxic substances, a toxicology laboratory should have an efficiently working toxic substance/biological hazards elimination system. Fume hoods, exhaust fans and closed incineration systems are therefore essential laboratory must haves. Safety is everybody’s business.

So there you have it (I can’t believe I am actually about to finish). I believe that these recommendations may further be revised but I think these are the basic things a toxicology laboratory must have. The world of science has been moving in a very fast pace. Just like what the camerlengo said in the book Angels and Demons, “mankind took thousands of years to progress from the wheel to the car… Now we measure scientific progress in weeks. These recommendations might have long been fulfilled but it pays off to know the roots of all of these improvements we now enjoy.

Wednesday, July 21, 2010

To Test or Not To Test

Are you in favor of drug testing for students before admission in schools?

Almost everybody needs to undergo it. Before being hired for a job, before getting a driver’s license, and for some famous sports icon I know, it is done before entering into a “fight “. Whether the battle is on the boxing ring or just on the cozy but sometimes stressful environment of a work office, drug testing is a must.

Taking into consideration what I have said, we may simply come up with the verdict that drug testing for students before entering school would be a great idea. Of course there are advantages. For one, it may ensure the safety of other students and people from the institution where an enrollee who has been proved to be taking drugs. We all know that there are a growing number of horrid school incidents across the planet being drug abuser students as the perpetrator. One good example and probably the most horrible was what have happened back in 1966 when a student named Charles Whitman murdered 14 people and injured 32 others. Experts in charge of the case say that his amphetamine dependence was conceivably one of the causes of his actions.

But when you take a deeper look at the issue, I would have to say that obligatory drug testing for incoming students isn’t that a good idea.

“No child shall be subjected to arbitrary or unlawful interference with his or her privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to unlawful attacks on his or her honor and reputation."

This is Article 16 of the United Nations Convention on Human Rights. Bearing this in mind I have finally resolute to take the side of those who disagree with the “proposal”. Yes, I know that a student under the influence of drugs may potentially cause harm to other people he could come into contact with at school. But have we considered the effects it may cause to the student guilty of drug abuse?

Social humiliation is perhaps the most fatal damage a student proven guilty of drug abuse may experience. And that is because of the invasion of privacy due to the over-zealous enforcement of laws regarding drug abuse and drug testing. Yes, I know that everyone should be responsible for his or her actions. But what we are talking about are mostly school aged children.

The youth of today are exposed to many kinds of problems regarding family, social issues and bad influences. They won’t commit into taking drugs just like that. There must be an underlying reason why they engage into such illegal acts.

Aside from tons and tons of humiliation, the child may also feel apprehensive and desecrated of his right against persecution by others, incursion of privacy, unlawful investigation and self-incrimination to name a few.

Going back to the case of Charles Whitman, it was discovered that he had to deal with problems that arise due to his dysfunctional family. This possibly could have lured him into taking in amphetamines to escape his problems. Although he is not a child, his case is a proof that people who take illegal drugs don’t just do it for fun, most of time, there is a concealed explanation for such actions.

Furthermore, if a 25 year old man such as Whitman failed to properly justify that doing drugs is unlawful, what more to a child who is vulnerable of any kind of persuasion; may it be good or bad?

So what should we do instead? I believe that the government should concentrate on improving their programs regarding proper education regarding the bad effects of drugs to students. Give more budgets to livelihood program and other activities which may keep students from using drugs. And for those who are experiencing emotional, spiritual and social problems; maybe effective counseling sessions would be of big help.

So why not do drug testing on students before they could enter school? They aren’t on the battle field yet. It’s just the training ground they’re in, where you are allowed to commit mistakes. They are still students---students who commit mistakes, who sometimes lose their way. They don’t need something that would just pull them and may even burry them to the pit.

Wednesday, July 7, 2010


June 26 2006, 5:48 A.M.

Fingers of the morning light diffused through the thin curtains of my window and drew a line across my bed and into the opposing wall. As I stick my head out of the comforter I can hear the hardly audible sizzle of our breakfast being cooked in the kitchen. Turning my head, I felt kind of proud for myself as I gazed my bed side alarm clock. I realized I woke up without its frenzied ringing. It has been 3 weeks since class has started and it was the first time that that happened to me.

I was starting to get convinced that it will going to be a great day as I hear my favorite song coming from the living room seep into my door which was left open just a crack. I leaped out of the bed and with a few tosses and turn my eiderdown and pillows are back on their proper places. Feeling much better than my last two weeks, I was totally unaware of the dreadful events that are happening inside my body.

The start of the school year wasn’t good for me. Dark nimbus clouds which brought heavy rains and thunder storms covered the whole city for the past 14 days. And being a person who doesn’t always practice healthy living a fever and flu is what I expect whenever I get caught up in a bad weather. During these times, the medicine cabinet with its frosted glass cover etched with a bright red cross on the center is my best friend. Yep! I am guilty of self medication. It has been 2 weeks since I started taking Tylenol to alleviate and avert any further acquisition of fever. As far as I was concerned it’s done wonders for me---at least that’s what I think.

The dining table which is just right for the six of us is in its normal scenario since class has started. One of my sisters who is seated on the left side multitasks---she dries her hair off while eating her breakfast. Beside her is the other one. Being a very figure conscious girl she pats the ham and hotdog on her plate with tissue paper making sure to remove the excess fat that my mom who is busy chiseling the pan for something she has burned cooked. My little brother opposite her is almost done with his bowl of cereal. It was my dad who is always absent during our Monday morning breakfasts. He loves staying late at night during Sundays to watch his favorite TV show, the UFC.

I was about to pull my chair when I suddenly felt the urge to urinate. My voice echoed from the four corners of the bathroom as I was horrified by what I saw. A tinge of red fluid which seemed to be blood was starting to mix with my amber urine when my mom started banging the bathroom door. At first I didn’t know what to do, should I make a story or should I just tell the truth? I started feeling light headed and my hands seemed to be much colder than the doorknob that I was turning to let my mom in. Without any questions asked she dashed into the living room as soon as she saw the toilet bowl and punched in some numbers on the telephone. After some nodding and nail biting she hanged up. I can see the fear and worry in her small brown eyes as she looked at me for a few seconds. “Dress up!” were the only words she had managed to utter after that phone call.

That morning, after dropping my siblings to school, mom, dad and I went to our family internist. It has been a while since I visited Mr. Ocera’s clinic. Seeing all the other sick patients and hearing children sob made me feel very nervous. My throat started feeling dry as if it was parched by acetone. 10 minutes had already passed when a nurse called my name. It was my turn to see the doctor.

“Good Morning Robin, Come in!” Dr. Marco Ocera greeted as soon as he sees me on the door. I felt kind of relieved as I heard his very welcoming voice. After he greeted my mother who was just behind me, he pointed to the chair adjacent to his office table. Dr Ocera looked like the cliché physician someone could imagine. You can tell by the thinness of his hair that he is a man who is about to face andropause. He wears eyeglasses which have frames that almost obscure his eyebrows. A tie wrapped his neck which isn’t well positioned maybe because of his very tight schedule. Maroon polo was beneath his lab coat with pockets filled with pens of different colors, a second set of eyeglasses and a pair of forceps.

As soon as he said “What seems to be the problem”, my mom started talking like she was the one who needs some medical attention. I was just bobbing my head whenever the doctor looks at me as if I was on the same page with what they are talking.

As I listen to them inattentively, I was trying to recall of something that I did or ate that maybe caused what happened to me that morning. The fishball, qwek-qwek, isaw.. Hmmm. I was starting to day dream when my mom grabbed my hand and smiled at me as she points to the direction of the laboratory. A few moments later I stepped out of the facility having about 15 mL lesser blood in my system than before I entered.

We were asked to come back after 3 days for the results. As we drove home, I was still clueless of what may have happened to me that lead to that unforgettable mishap.

3 days... 72 hours… 4320 minutes… it felt like it would take forever. I was on pins and needles waiting for that piece of paper for 3 whole days. Anxious, fretful, restless as long as it’s an unpleasant feeling brought about by news which you are not sure if it’s going to be good or bad, it fits. Sleepless nights, unfinished meals, and hour and hours of thinking on the wee hours of the morning, I thought I’m going to develop another illness because of the suspense.

The clock’s ticking, the nurse’s retractable pen, the vigorous noise coming from a man’s unconscious shuddering foot in front of me, I feel so wary waiting for my name to be called. It has been 30 minutes since we arrived at my doctor’s clinic. The metal arm rest of my seat started getting warm for it has been a while since I lay my hands on it whenever a nurse peeps out from the room where my doctor is.

It took 20 minutes for Dr. Ocera to explain to us what has happened to me. The blood containing urine which is termed as “hematuria” in the medical world is a complication of the type of hemolytic anemia I got. Drug-induced hemolytic anemia to be specific, it is a type of anemia in which a drug binds to the red blood cell’s membrane. This phenomenon causes the production of antibodies against the drug. As the antidrug antibody attacks the drug, the red blood cells are destroyed as well either by the antibody itself or by the spleen.

Acetaminophen is the culprit which caused my hemolytic anemia. More commonly known as Paracetamol, it is a type of analgesic and antipyretic. Analgesics are pain relievers. It could treat almost any kind of pain; from something as mild as a headache to something as severe as pain due to arthritis. It is also sometimes used to treat reactions due to vaccination. Antipyretics on the other hand are fever reducers.

Despite of its long time availability, dating back to the 1950s there hasn’t been any clear explanation of its mechanism of action. Reticence of cyclooxygenase (COX) particularly COX-2 is considered its main mechanism of action. What are COXs? COXs are enzymes which breakdown certain molecules that are converted to several pro-inflammatory compounds. Paracetamol works by reducing the COX enzyme therefore impeding it from turning into pro-inflammatory chemicals. A lowered Prostaglandin level in the central nervous system then follows. This causes the thermoregulatory center of the hypothalamus to be lesser.

Aside from that, Paracetamol also adjusts the endogenous cannabinoid system. Its reduced form, the AM404 impedes the absorption of endogenous cannabinoid anandamide by brain cells. Anandamide absorption leads to the activation of the pain receptors of the body.

Acetaminophen is an “over-the-counter” drug which means that it could be purchased without any prescription from a doctor. However, it may be prescribed to treat other kinds of diseases. It is available in different forms. It comes as tablets, capsules, liquid suspensions and suppositories. Being the leading cause of acute liver failure in some countries, it is important that we should practice following directions that come with the package religiously. This is because some products contain more acetaminophen than others.

One can take a maximum of 4 grams of acetaminophen daily. Studies have shown that even a slight increased intake of the drug may result to liver damage in as early as two weeks.

For more information about the Acetaminophen, you may check unto these following sites:

I have picked up a couple of lessons because of this experience. Too much of everything is bad. Do not self medicate—a doctor’s opinion is always helpful. Practice a healthy lifestyle. But probably the most important is that you can never really tell if your day is going to be a good one :). We should always be ready for the consequences of our actions. ‘Cause you’ll never know how wills its creepy fingers work.

Wednesday, June 9, 2010


Have you experienced being a leader?

The initiator, the manager, the officer-in-charge, the boss… These are some of the different styles in addressing a person who is in authority.

Merriam-Webster defined it this way:

plural leaders
1. a person who has commanding authority or influence
2. a person who directs a military force or unit

A leader is someone who guides a group of individuals into achieving a task or a common goal. For different people have different ways of getting something they want, it is impossible to achieve something as one. That is when a leader takes the pedestal and shine.

Different situations call for different leaders. In our classroom, we have teachers. Cities have mayors. Homes have parents. And even in our own body, a leader works 24/7. It may not be too striking once you see it, but it can impede your body’s normal function once it's “associates” augment or dwindle. The Hypothalamus… or as how I say it---The Hyperthalamus.

Yep! Once again this often times neglected tissue of the body is on the spot light of my blog. And this time it has more things under its sleeve to show off.

As what have been mentioned above, the hypothalamus is one of the “initiators” of the body. As we all know it produces hormones necessary for the maintenance of our internal “yin and yang”. As the tissue which controls the master of other glands, it is important that we evaluate the hypothalamus’s function once in a while. Just like a normal leader.

A meticulous critic for a president, tons and tons of evaluation papers for teachers, these are some techniques in which a person can test and evaluate a leader’s performance. As for the hormones of the hypothalamus we have… hormones?? Hormones for hormones. That is basically the principle of the tests being performed to check for the normality of the three major hormones it secretes namely: the Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone (TRH), Corticotropin Releasing Hormone (CRH), and Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH).

TRH Test
The TRH test is a laboratory procedure to evaluate a person’s production of Thyroid Releasing Hormone. Abnormal production of TRH may cause conditions such as hypothyroidism. This condition is caused by a damaged hypothalamus or pituitary gland. The levels of TSH are measured at different time intervals by extracting a sample of blood. Prior to that, a small amount of TRH is introduced into a person’s system.
Logically speaking, when a person with a normal TRH level undergoes this test, his/her TSH levels will increase following injection.

Unchanged levels of TRH indicate a positive diagnosis for hypothyroidism. Other test to confirm the condition may be utilized after.

CRH Test

This test is done for evaluating a disease called Cushing’s syndrome. It is an abnormality of the hormone called Cortisol which again the hypothalamus initiates to be secreted. This is first by stimulating the anterior pituitary to produce Adenocorticotropic hormone which will then stimulate the secretion of Cortisol. Being a disease that can also manifest in horse and dogs, it has one specific cause which is a tumor in the master gland.

The test has almost the same procedure as the TRH test. Aside from the different time intervals at which blood is taken for evaluation of the progressive rise and fall of ACTH and Cortisol levels, blood is also taken before the test to determine the baseline ACTH and Cortisol levels. CRH is then administered intravenously. Then results are plotted and evaluated.

GnRH Test

Feeling a bit shorter than your classmates? Still heading for the kid’s section of a department store? Or just looking too “baby face”? You must have abnormally low levels of GnRH. I recommend you to undergo this test

GnRH as we all know helps in the normal development of secondary sexual characteristics. It stimulates the production of LH and FSH in the anterior pituitary. LH or Luteinizing hormone and FSH or Follicle-stimulating hormone is what we check after GnRH is administered intravenously as a bolus. Three blood samples in a total are needed for evaluation following extraction of intervals of 20 and 60 minutes. Results are plotted and interpreted.

Basically, normal patients would have a rise in a doubling manner of LH and FSH every, after 20 minutes. An abnormality of the gonads will cause an exaggerated result to the test. While a result having no progression or a result that remains flat is a characteristic of a person having pituitary or hypothalamic disease.

These three simple tests are very useful in evaluating the condition of the hypothalamus. It does not only help us assess whether or not this leader of the body is doing its job properly, it also helps us find out if this leader has a problem. Remember that a leader isn’t always perfect. Not too often but sometimes he/she needs someone or something to help him/her out. I’m sure everyone of you knows what I’m talking about. ;-)

You may click unto these links for further knowledge about the tests:


Clinical Chemistry: Principles, Procedures, Correlations 5th Edition by M. Bishop et. al

Clinical Chemistry: A Fundamental Textbook by D. Calbreath

Tuesday, May 25, 2010

"The frosty haze caressed my face as I open the fridge to search for something to drink. As it clears out I saw a PITCHER OF ORANGE JUICE sitting on a bed of ice staring back at me. It was all sweaty and looked as if a model on a billboard that’s magnetizing my hand to grasp it. As soon as I took it out of the fridge I grab a glass and filled it with the drink up to the brim.

I sat on the center island of the kitchen and watch my mom cook. I checked my watch and it was almost dinner time. I just got home from school. As I was gazing at my mom I suddenly burst into laughter. I just couldn’t help it. After about a minute or two of continues laughing, I finally got control of it.

So why did I laugh out of the blue? I remembered something… something that happened to me at school.

It was half pass 5 in the afternoon. Almost all of my classmates have gone home. I was walking at the corridor feeling very hot. It’s during this time I find my HANKY very useful. I wiped my forehead across my face and down to my neck with it, unfold it once and started fanning myself. I was about to reach the end of the hall when a familiar face popped out of nowhere. It was my CRUSH

The beam of the setting sun was bouncing on her beautiful face as she walks gracefully across the strip. I was enjoying looking at her when I realized she was heading towards my way. All of a sudden I don’t know what to do. In just a matter of seconds she’ll be in front of me and I don’t think I can handle it. It started feeling hot again and so I fanned faster and faster. I was starting to HURT a little as my hanky slapped my arm in both sides because of vigorous fanning. I FELT BUTTERFLIES FLUTTERING INSIDE MY STOMACH as she approaches me. My heart was ready to jump right out of my chest and hide somewhere to get over of timidity.

Finally, a door of opportunity literally opened for me. It was the opportunity to hide. I swiftly let myself inside the canteen and stayed there for about 5 minutes. As soon as I was sure she wasn’t there anymore I went out and walked wearing a smile on my face.

My mom was already shaking me when I realized I was day dreaming in front of her. She asked me why was I laughing but I didn’t answer. I know I was BLUSHING as I leap out of the counter top and help myself out of the kitchen."

So, maybe by this time you’re asking if I posted this story correctly into this blog. Well, yes! At first it looks like it has nothing to do with the topic assigned to me which is by the way “the hypothalamus and its hormones”. But I tell you, it has. If you would notice, there are words and phrases with colors and in all caps. Those are the specific points I would like you to concentrate on…

The hypothalamus is an organ located at the lower portion of the brain. It controls different involuntary phenomena that happen inside our body such as the contraction of smooth muscles that line different organs such as the intestinal tract as well as the urinary tract. It is also responsible for the movement of our heart muscles.

Maintenance of homeostasis is one of its functions. The “pitcher of orange juice” and the “hanky” is how I represent this function of the hypothalamus. Being the thirst center of the brain, it helps in maintaining fluid balance inside our body. Aside from thirst, it also helps regulate food intake.

The hanky… The hanky represents the role of the hypothalamus in controlling body temperature. When the blood temperature flowing through it is above normal, it directs the autonomic nervous system to stimulate activities that will promote heat loss such as fanning. Thyrotrophin-releasing hormone is said to be one of the hormones it produce to be able to carry out this function.

Having a strong feeling for someone? You have a “crush”. So who to blame, your heart? Nah. Blame it all to the hypothalamus, more specifically to the Gonadotropin-releasing hormone it produces. This hormone also known as GnRH has been known to have effects on the body’s limbic system. The limbic system is a part of the forebrain which is involved in the expression of rage, aggression, pain, and pleasure as well as the behavioral patterns related to sexual arousal. It is sometimes called as the “emotional brain”.

Remember the part of the story when I felt sweaty and hot again even though I was already being fanned because my crush is about to walk towards me? Well, this very stressful situation is because of a hormone called Corticotropin-releasing hormone. This large hormone like the GHRH is made up of 41 amino acids arranged in a single chain is responsible for the regulation of physical and emotional stress when increased. Together with a low level of cortisol it promotes the release of ACTH from the anterior pituitary where it stimulates the secretion of glucocorticoids. Protein breakdown, lypolysis, glucose formation, anti-inflammation, resistance to stress and depression of immune responses are other effects of glucocorticoids where CRH participates.

There is one hormone that our hypothalamus secretes that somehow isn’t that related to my story. This is the Growth hormone-releasing hormone...

Growth hormone-releasing hormone as its name suggests is the hormone that helps us develop into maturity. It is stimulated by stress more specifically physical exercise. When produced in abnormally high amounts, it may lead to acromegaly. Acromegaly is a disease that is caused by the hypersecretion of human growth hormone (hGH) in the anterior pituitary-the part of the brain where GRHR is utilized. This disease is being prevented by the secretion of another hormone called somatostatin.

All of those feelings we have because of the hormones our dear hypothalamus secretes make each day worth remembering, laughing, enjoying and treasuring. With all these things it can do, I think its name doesn’t fit it. I think we should call it HYPERthalamus.

Clinical Chemistry: Principles, Procedures, Correlations 5th Edition by M. Bishop

Wednesday, May 12, 2010

CC3-Everyday Okay

I still got misty eyes when my air conditioning unit stopped. It was timed to do so at exactly 9:00 in the morning. I headed to the bathroom to wash my face filled with bed sheet marks. As I was lathering soap all over my face, I can feel some water dripping from my chin into my neck. After some vigorous rubbing, I rinsed. Making sure that there wouldn’t be any trace of soap, I pat my whole face including my neck. And as I was doing so I accidentally hit my adam’s apple which kind of hurt a little. Then I started asking questions. Why do we have adam’s apple? What is its purpose? Why didn’t we have them as a child? How does it develop? Could I get sick if I bump it often? And why is it even called that way? This and many other questions about our human body could be answered through Endocrinology.

Hormones… hormones… hormones… That is what endocrinology is all about. It comes from two Greek words “endo” meaning “inside” and “krino” meaning “to separate”. Endocrinology’s main concerns are the organs of the Endocrine System. The Endocrine System is the collection of hormone-secreting organs or glands that control different physiological functions of the body through the production of hormones which are released into the blood in order to be transported to the different parts of the body. Many of the processes that take place inside our body are controlled by these “internal secretions”. And so, the dysfunction or abnormality in the hormones could greatly affect a person’s health. Therefore, Endocrinology is a very important topic in the field of medicine because it explains to us how a disease that is related to the production and secretion of hormones develops. Through this knowledge, diagnosis and treatment of the endocrine system is possible.

Feeling energized and wakeful already, I went to the kitchen to grab a bowl of cereal. The carton of milk was still cold when I poured it over my cereal. As I was munching my breakfast I felt bored because the rest of my family already had breakfast like an hour ahead of me. I have this habit of reading anything that is readable when I feel bored. And that time the only readable thing available is the back of the milk carton I just poured into my bowl. I was about to pour it again when something I read stopped me. It says “contain lead”. I was about to call my mom to tell her what I just found out when I took a second look at it. I felt ridiculous when I saw that I skipped the “does not” part of the phrase. Then I told myself that it is a good thing we have toxicologists to test the food we eat for harmful substances that may be present on them like lead.

Toxicologist… a person who specializes on Toxicology… from the word itself, toxicology is the study of the different substances that may be harmful to our body. Also known as the “science of poison”, toxicology explains to us the adverse effects of chemical on living organisms. It includes the mechanism of these toxic substances which makes them harmful not only to humans but also to other forms of living things like plants.

Since it was still early to go out and take a walk I decided to watch TV. As I was zapping through the channels police sirens started blasting out of the speakers. I felt curious and so I punched in the channel where I think I saw it. It was the morning news. Like most teens my initial reaction would be to change it. But then I decided to stay for a while to see what the police sirens are for. Apparently the police had a raid on this apartment which was discovered to be a laboratory for substance of abuse like drugs. Then I remembered one of our topics in CC3 which is drug testing.

Drug testing is basically testing for different body specimens like urine and blood in order to detect the presence of drugs. When our body takes in anything, food, drink, or drugs they are broken down and released into the body with urine, sweat, blood, etc. One product of the breaking down of these substances is “metabolites”. Metabolites that are present in the specimens are what we use to detect if a person had previous exposure or intake of a certain drug. But why do we have to test for drugs? As we all know certain forms of drug may be harmful to our body. Some may cause dysfunction of the brain which may cause a person to not act normally. This could be harmful not only to the person himself but also to other people he or she maybe with. Through drug testing possible harm coming from these “drug abusers” may be avoided.

Together with Endocrinology and Toxicology, Drug testing are the three topics which composes Clinical Chemistry 3. Now, who says CC3 couldn't be applied on daily life? This blog note is an example that it can be anywhere: on the news, on your breakfast table, and even on your own body. You just have to wake up and wash that doubt and negativity about the subject off of your face.